Kalpana Improvisations - 184172 - (Condition 85-90%) - LP Record

In classical music of South India Kalpanaswaram (also called swara kalpana, svara kalpana, manodharmaswara or just swaras), is raga improvisation within a specific tala in which the musician improvises in the Indian music solfege (sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni) after completing a composition.

The kalpanaswaram start may start at any place in the tala, but the artist must end their improvisation at the first note of the first phrase of the composition, at the place in the rhythm cycle, where that note is. To arrive at that note, one has to approach it from the closest note below.

Kalpanaswaram improvisations increase in intensity the more tala cycles used. One complete tala cycle is called an avartanam. While improvising, the musician must abide by the rules of the raga and should sing kalpanaswaram phrases that have been sung over the years. Some ragas omit notes and others have zigzagging ascents or descents. The great musicians develop a vocabulary of phrases in kalpanaswaram as in an alapana, especially when doing kalpanaswaram at low speeds, which allow for more gamaka. The place where the first note of the first phrase of the composition exists in the rhythm cycle is called the eduppu.

Kalpanaswaram is performed in a Carnatic Concert for the main song, the singer chooses to perform the Raga Alapana. However in concerts, artists will choose a difficult raga to perform a Kalpanaswaram in. Although there are no set rules, there can be confusion.

Take the Raga Sahana (janya of 28th Melakarta raga Harikambhoji):

Arohanam : S R G M P M D N S

Avarohanam : S N D P M G M R G R S

In this raga, when the artist improvises, when ascending in pitch after the Pa (Panchamam), the Ma (Madhyamam) needs to be sung, or the raga will be wrong. So with a raga like Sahana or Anandabhairavi, Purvi Kalyani etc., which have Dhattu (jumping) swarams in their arohanam and/or avarohanam the Kalpanaswaram is harder to master and perform.

In her 1992 dissertation on kalpanaswaram, Josepha Cormack wrote that kalpanaswaram improvisations have been around for at least two hundred years. (Cormack 1992: 30)

Record Details


Kalpana Improvisations - 184172


Mrinal Sen Gupta, Lateef Ahmed Khan & Tirath Ajmani


Sarod & Tabla


Indian Classical (Instrumental)





Made In



Polydor Of India Ltd.

Serial No.


Side One

  • Rag Misra Mand – Dhun

a)   Alap

b)  Dhun in Dadra Tal 

c)   Fast-Tempo gat in tintal

  • Kathak

a)   Slow-Tempo Tintal

b)  Fast-Tempo Tintal

Side Two

  • Rupak Tal


  • Rag Hemant

a)   Alap

b)  Slow-Tempo gat in tintal

c)   Fast-Tempo gat in tintal



12 Inches


33 RPM

Record Condition


Cover Condition


Artist - 1 Mrinal Sen Gupta
Artist - 2 Lateef Ahmed Khan
Artist - 3 Tirath Ajmani
Record Details
Genre Indian Classical (Instrumental)
Label Polydor
Language Hindi
Size 12 Inches
Speed 33 RPM
Side1 - Song1 Rupak Tal
Side1 - Song2 Kathak
Side2 - Song2 Rag Hemant

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Kalpana Improvisations - 184172 - (Condition 85-90%) - LP Record

  • Brand: Polydor
  • Product Code: 184 172
  • Availability: In Stock
  • Rs.2,000.00

  • Ex Tax: Rs.2,000.00

Tags: kalpana improvisations, 184172, condition 85-90, lp record, indian classical, instrument